Lythrum salicaria L.
|Although known purple loosestrife infestations are small in North Dakota and generally found in or downstream of urban areas. These infestations can be traced to escapes from public or private horticultural plantings, often from seed that finds its way to streams and rivers through storm drains. Purple loosestrife was added to the North Dakota Noxious Weed List in 1996 and state law requires all plants to be removed to prevent this plant from becoming a major weed problem in the wetlands of the state.|
Purple loosestrife, a beautiful garden plant with an aggressive nature, was first introduced into North America in the early 1800s. The plant was sold in North Dakota by its genus name Lythrum for at least 50 years. Lythrum plants were brought to North Dakota for flower gardens because of their striking color, ease of growth, winter hardiness, and lack of insect or disease problems (Figure 1).
The most destructive impact of purple loosestrife invasions is on the ecology of aquatic sites. Purple Loosestrife forms dense monotypic stands as it displaces native wetland plants (Figure 2).
purple loosestrife can be very aggressive, it does have good qualities
in addition to landscaping uses. The plant is utilized as nesting sites
by red-winged blackbirds and to a small degree for cover and food by white-tailed
deer. The flowers are a rich source of nectar and pollen for insects such
as bees, adult parasitic wasps, and syrphid flies.
When purple loosestrife replaces native vegetation it also can displace wildlife. For example, songbirds do not consume the small hard seed. Muskrats use cattails to build their homes, and they show a preference for cattail over purple loosestrife for food. Waterfowl, especially ducks, avoid wetlands that have become dominated with purple loosestrife. In addition, overall waterfowl production decreases as suitable nesting habitat is eliminated. The plant's growth is generally too compact to offer cover, and cover may be as crucial to wildlife as food.
The garden varieties of purple loosestrife were sold by many cultivar names including Morden Pink, Dropmore Purple, and Morden Gleam. These garden cultivars were thought to be sterile but have now been shown to cross-pollinate with the wild Lythrum type and sometimes with other Lythrum cultivars.
Purple loosestrife has been heavily utilized in North Dakota flower gardens, park plantings, and golf courses. Research has found that all varieties of lythrum produce seed, which is a source of infestation to aquatic sites, including rivers, lakes, sloughs, dams, dugouts, bogs, swamps, irrigation ditches, streams (perennial or semi-permanent) and other water courses, or wet sites. To prevent spread into aquatic sites, all purple loosestrife plantings are required by state law to be removed.
Purple loosestrife is a rhizomatous perennial forb introduced to North America from Eurasia and Africa. Wild infestations are associated with moist or marshy sites. The stems are erect (1.5 to 8 or more feet tall), four to six angled, and can be smooth or pubescent with few branches. Leaves are simple (0.75 to 4 inches long, 0.2 to 0.5 inches wide), entire, and can be opposite or whorled.
The roots become thick and woody in mature plants. The aerial shoots die in the fall and new shoots arise the following spring from buds at the top of the root crown. Although the root crown expands and produces more shoots each year, the maximum growth of the root crown diameter is limited to about 20 inches.
The flowers are arranged on a spike, which can be a few inches to 3 feet long. Each flower has five to seven petals arising from a cylindrical green tube. Figure 4
The plant usually flowers from early July to mid-September in North Dakota. The seed capsule is two celled and contains many very small seeds (1 mm long or less).
|Spread of purple loosestrife is primarily by seed, but the plant can also spread vegetatively from stem cuttings. Research at NDSU has shown that seed viability of purple loosestrife growing in North Dakota wetlands ranged from 50 to 100 percent. With approximately 2.7 million seeds produced per plant, purple loosestrife has the potential to spread rapidly once established in an area.|
Several methods are available for purple loosestrife control, including mechanical, biological, and chemical. The size and location of a specific infestation will determine the best control methods. In general, small infestations of a few plants can be controlled by digging, especially when plants are only a few years old. Larger infestations require treatment with herbicides and/or biological control agents.
Small infestations can be controlled by removing all roots and underground stems. It is difficult to remove all of the roots in a single digging, so monitor the area for several growing seasons to ensure that purple loosestrife has not regrown from roots or seed. This method is most useful on garden plantings or young infestations.
Dispose of plants and roots by drying
and burning or by composting in an enclosed area. Take care to prevent
further seed spread from clothing or equipment during the removal process.
Removal of all plant material is important. Small segments of purple loosestrife
stems can become rooted and reestablish the infestation.
Herbicides can be used to control purple
loosestrife in areas too large to be controlled by digging. Also, herbicides
can be applied to individual plants selectively in landscape situations
to prevent killing desirable plants. Infestations growing along streams
or in marshy areas may require specialized equipment and application by
Rodeo or Roundup (Glyphosate)
Glyphosate will provide good control of purple loosestrife when applied from July to early September. Many formulations of glyphosate are sold but only those labeled for aquatic use can be applied in or near water. For example, the Rodeo and Glypro formulations of glyphosate can be used in water. With the Rodeo or Glypro formulations, a nonionic surfactant approved for aquatic sites at 0.25% vol/vol must be added to the spray solution. Roundup and similar glyphosate formulations can be used to remove purple loosestrife from large plantings or infestations away from water. Glyphosate has no soil residual so it could be used to remove purple loosestrife located within an ornamental planting without having to dig in the flower bed. Best results have been obtained when glyphosate is applied as a 1 to 1.5% concentration (1 to 1.5 gallons glyphosate per 100 gallons of water) or (1.3 to 1.9 fl. oz./gallon of water) at bloom or shortly thereafter.
A variety of sprayers, including backpack sprayers and boat-mounted sprayers, can be used to control purple loosestrife in aquatic sites. Wick application is also effective but is labor intensive. Spray dye added to the tank may be useful to ensure uniform application to purple loosestrife with minimal herbicide applied to desirable plants.
Eliminating the entire vegetative cover will promote purple loosestrife seed germination, which can result in an increase in plant density rather than control. Since glyphosate does not provide residual control, treated areas will need to be monitored for regrowth from the roots or seedlings for several years. A 2,4-D formulation labeled for use near water applied as a 2% solution (2 gallons 2,4-D per 100 gallons of water) or (2.6 fl. oz./gallon of water) will prevent seedling establishment when applied in early fall or spring before the plants can establish perennial characteristics.
Garlon is a selective broadleaf herbicide that will not kill cattail or other desirable monocot species. Important: Garlon is not labeled for use in water; it can only be used up to the water's edge. Garlon will provide good to excellent purple loosestrife control when applied in the pre to early flower or late flower growth stages. Garlon should be applied as a 1 to 2% solution (1 to 2 gallons Garlon per 100 gallons of water or 1.3 to 2.6 fl. oz./gallon of water) and will provide some residual seedling control. Garlon can be applied in dryland sites but should not be used in landscapes or flower beds because soil residual of the herbicide may prevent establishment of other horticultural plants.
Regardless of the herbicide applied, the infested areas should be monitored to ensure that purple loosestrife does not reinfest from root or seed. Also, areas downstream from river or creek infestations and on all sides of a lake or pond infestation should be monitored for purple loosestrife seedlings. Top
Three biocontrol insect species were
first released in North Dakota in 1997 and include:
Of these insects, the two Galerucella spp. leaf feeding beetles have been most successful. These insects overwinter as adults and lay eggs in early June in North Dakota. Top
The adults and especially the larvae feed on the leaves and flowers of purple loosestrife (Figure 5). Following several summers of heavy feeding, purple loosestrife infestations have been greatly reduced.
However, since the largest infestations in North Dakota are in urban areas, mosquito control programs have kept these insects from becoming well established. Purple loosestrife infestations in North Dakota are generally small and isolated and should be controlled by chemical and/or mechanical methods.
Top (Figure 5)
If you currently have a cultivar of purple loosestrife growing in your garden or in a public planting, state law requires the plants be removed. Removal of purple loosestrife is the only way to prevent the plant's spread into North Dakota wetlands (Figure 6).
Several perennial plants that produce flowers on spikes could serve as replacement plants for purple loosestrife and include:
Blazing Star, Gay Feather (Liatris spp.) - Plants grow 2 to 3 feet tall and have flower spikes in white, pink, or purple from July through September. Good cut flower. They are drought tolerant and grow best in full sun. Some species of Liatris are native. Likely the best overall replacement plant.
Bugbane or Black Snakeroot (Cimicifuga racemosa) - Grows 3 to 5 feet tall with 4 to 6 foot ivory-white flower spikes in late summer. Prefers moist site with high organic matter in full sun or partial shade.
Catmint (Nepeta X faassenii) - Hardy border plant with lavender-blue flowers from early summer to fall. Most cultivars are short growing but `Blue Hills Giant' will grow up to 3 feet.
flower (Lobelia cardinalis) - Scarlet red flowers
from early to late summer. Grows 2 to 3 three feet tall and prefers partial
shade and moist growing conditions. Excellent choice for near ponds or
streams. Native to North America.
suitable to replace purple loosestrife that was grown for a tall background
border but have a different growth form and do not have flowers borne on
(Gaillardia aristata) - Yellow flowers with red centers. Blooms
from June through September and grows 2 to 3 feet tall and wide. Will
tolerate heat and survives in poor soils.
North Dakota Dept. of Agriculture.
Skinner, L.C., and T.P. Hollenhorst.
1989. Incidence, spread, and control studies of purple loosestrife (Lythrum
|W-1132 (Revised) March 2002 Top|
Extension Service, North Dakota State University of Agriculture and Applied
Science, and U.S. Department of Agriculture cooperating. Sharon D. Anderson,
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