Canola is an edible oil that is extracted from two oilseeds crucifers, Brassica rapa (= campestris) L. and B. napus L. Using conventional plant breeding techniques, selections that were low in seed glucosinolates and euric acid were developed in Canada, and referred to a double-low rapeseed or canola. Canola can be produced either as spring or fall planted crop, depending on location.
In the North Central Region, it is a spring planted crop in North Dakota, South Dakota, and Minnesota. The crop is usually planted in late April or early May and harvested in August and September. Canola is usually produced in rotation with small grains. Tillage is conventional with sweep-tillage and seeded with an air-drill or press drill. It is seeded at a rate of 5 - 8 lbs in 6 - 8 inch row spacing.
In the Pacific Northwest, it can be either a spring or fall planted crop in Washington, Oregon, Idaho, and Montana. A fall planted crop is usually seeded in September and harvested in July. A spring planted crop is usually seeded in April or May and harvested in August. Canola is grown in rotation with winter or spring wheat, barley, peas, or lentils. Tillage is usually conventional with sweep tillage and seeded with either with an air-drill or press drill. It is seeded at a rate of 5 - 8 lbs in 6 - 10 inch row spacing.
In the Southeast, canola is grown in Georgia, South Carolina, Alabama and northern Florida. The crop is planted in October and harvested in May. Canola usually is double cropped following corn, peanuts, cotton, or tobacco with summer crops planted after canola being soybean, cotton, or grain sorghum. Tillage usually is conventional with chisel plowing and/or disc harrowing. Typically 5-6 lbs per acre of seed are planted in 7 to 10 inch rows using a grain drill. All canola grown in the Southeast is genetically engineered to produce lauric acid as part of the oil in the seed. (Canola oil normally does not produced lauric acid). Oil extracted meal typically is used a livestock and poultry feed.
Northern Plains: North
Dakota, Minnesota, Montana, South Dakota
Pacific Northwest: Idaho,
Alabama, Florida, South Carolina
The total production acreage for 1997 in the US was 730,000 acres, a 42% increase in production over 1996. Production costs vary within the US, but in North Dakota direct production costs are estimated at $60.42 per acre with indirect costs estimated at $55.11 (Swenson and Aakre, Crop Budget Series 1998). The return to management and labor is estimated at $32.07. In the southeast, variable and fixed costs for canola production average $133.00 and $46.00, respectively, for a total cost of about $179.00 per acre (Hudson & Woodruff 1995). The average net return for canola was about $21.00 per acre ($8.00/bu and average 25 bu/acre). In the Northwest, direct production costs for spring canola are estimated at $147.58 per acre with indirect costs estimated at $81.15. Net returns above direct operating costs are estimated at $8.42 per acre, and returns to risk and management at -$72.73.
Flea beetle (Phyllotreta crucifera) is an early season pest of canola, especially during hot and dry weather. Adult beetles overwinter in shelterbelts, fly into the emerging canola crop, and feed on cotyledons. The crop becomes tolerant to injury after the appearance of true leaves. Beetles mate, lay eggs and die. The larvae feed on canola roots. The new generation of adults emerges in summer. The beetles feed on remaining green foliage and pods, but the injury is usually negligible. In late summer, they move to the shelterbelts to overwinter. The management options for flea beetles are early planting, insecticides applied at planting, and foliar application of insecticides. Lack of moisture may limit uptake of the soil-incorporated insecticide into the plants, which may cause insecticide failures. Insecticides currently available are carbofuran (Furadan CR-10, temporary tolerance expires in the fall of 1997) and Imidacloprid (Gaucho). Gaucho is applied as a seed treatment at 10 oz per 100 lbs of seed and carbofuran is applied as a corn cob grit granular at 0.25 lb AI per acre. Based on a survey of producers in the Northern Plains, about 60 - 70% of the acreage is treated with either carbofuran or imidacloprid.
Bertha armyworm (Mamestra configurata) is a mid- to late season pest of canola. It overwinters as pupae, the adults emerge, and lay eggs in the late spring. The larvae feed on foliage. While the larvae are small and the crop has abundant foliage, the damage is low. During the ripening stage startng in late July, mature larvae feed on pods and cause significant damage. For monitoring of adult flight, pheromone traps are available. Management decisions are based on counts of larvae. As a cultural control, early swathing may be an option in infested fields. The recommended threshold for insecticide applications is 18 - 22 larvae per square yard. North Dakota has had section 18 labels for bifenthrin (Capture) and lambda cyhalothrin (Warrior) in 1995 and 1996, respectively.
Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) is a late season pest of canola. Areas in the North Central region are infested every spring with adult moths migrating from the south part of the region. Once established, a new generation occurs approximately every three weeks. The generations overlap and any of the life stages can be found in the field. Young larvae feed in mines in leaf mesophyll whereas older larvae feed on leaf surface. Damage may occur during flowering and ripening when larvae feed on buds, flowers, and especially on the surface of ripening pods. The recommended threshold is 25 - 30 larvae per square foot. Methyl parathion and endosulfan are the only registered products for this pest.
Aphids (Complex consisting of turnip aphid, Lipaphis erysimi, green peach aphid, Myzus persicae, and cabbage aphid, Brevicoryne brassicae). Turnip and green peach aphids migrate into fields in the fall and feed through flowering in the spring. Cabbage aphid mostly occurs during flowering in the spring. Aphids disperse after flowering. Feeding injury mostly by the turnip aphid during seedling and rosette stages retards plant growth and makes plant more susceptible to cold temperature injury. Feeding injury during flowering reduces stem growth, causes flower abortion and inhibits pod and seed formation. Aphid resistant varieties are not available. Aphids caused about a 10 to 30% loss in canola yield if not controlled with an insecticide. Aphids populations can be naturally controlled by the weather and by natural enemies including a parasitic wasp and ladybird beetle larvae and adults. Fields are scouted for aphids. When populations exceed a threshold of 1-2 aphids per leaf, infestations are controlled using a foliar application of methyl parathion 4EC at the rate of 0.5 lb ai per acre. Gaucho seed treatment at the same rate recommended for flea beetle control also provides good control of aphid populations for 4 to 8 weeks after planting. A 12 month planting restriction currently prevents crops from being planted after canola unless Gaucho is registered for use on that crop which in the Southeast these crops are limited to cotton and grain sorghum. Soybeans can not be growth within 12 months after canola treated with imadcloprid. Endosulfan also is registered for aphid control but is not used because it is less effective especially against green peach aphid and is much more expensive than methyl parathion.
Cabbage seedpod weevil (Ceutorhynchus assimilis) does not occur in the coastal plain region of the southeastern U.S., where all commercial production currently is grown. The insect does occur in northern Georgia, Alabama, and South Carolina and would require preventive control if canola were ever grown in these areas of the Southeast.
Canola also harbors populations of thrips, (Frankliniella spp.), tarnished plant bug, (Lygus lineolaris), stink bugs, and false chinch bugs, (Nysius raphanus), during the spring. These insects typically do not damage the canola but build up on the canola and move the summer crops especially cotton in the same or adjacent field where they may cause significant damage.
Cabbage Seed Pod Weevil, (Ceutorhynchus assimilis) Cabbage seedpod weevils overwinter as adults near canola fields in protected area such as under bark of trees, sheds, wood piles, and litter. Adults start flying in the spring when the temperature reaches 60 degrees F, the time when wild mustard, winter rapeseed, and canola plants start to bud. Adults feed on the flowers, buds, stem, and pod of the canola. When they fly into the canola field they have mated and are ready to lay eggs. The first eggs are laid when the pods are about 1-1/8 inches long. Eggs are laid within the pod, larvae feed on seeds within the pod, consuming 4 to 6 pods each. More than one larva can occur in a pod. Yield reductions to 30 percent are possible from larval feeding. Larvae eventually exit the pod, drop to the soil to pupate, and emerge as new adults. The newly emerged adults feed on canola and brassica weeds and move to overwintering sites. There is one generation per year. Late spring plantings may escape weevil attack, but are then more subject to flea beetle, aphid, and diamondback moth attack, and hotter weather. Control is limited to methyl parathion and endosulfan.
Aphids The same three species as in the southeast region attack spring-planted canola in the northwest. Late plantings are severely affected by aphid feeding, which can stop terminal growth leading to a reduction in plant size and seed yield. Control has been limited to methyl parathion and a Section 18 label for bifenthrin.
Flea beetle (Phyllotreta cruciferae) attacks fall-planted seedlings, late spring-planted seedlings, and sometimes pods and leaves of spring-planted canola. See northern plains section for biology. Furadan CR-10 was registered in Washington and Idaho in 1997. Foliar treatments has been limited to methyl parathion, but it is not as effective as imidacloprid or carbofuran.
Diamondback moth (Plutella xylostella) damage occurs leaves, buds, flowers, and pods of plants. Damage may be more severe on later plantings. Damage (numbers of insects) is more variable from year to year then the other canola pests in the region. Migration of the moth may be from local populations or populations that have developed in more southern latitudes. See northern plains section for biology. Control has been limited to methyl parathion and Bacillus thuringiensis (BT) products.
Sclerotinia stem rot is most severe in wetter areas and years. It is caused by fungus Sclerotinia sclerotiorum which has a wide host range. The source of fungus is sclerotia in soil where they can remain dormant for five years or more. During prolonged moist conditions and moderate temperatures (at least for ten days), sclerotia produce apothecia that are the primary source of spores. Spores are carried by air and land on flower petals which eventually fall onto leaves and the growing mycelium invades the plant tissue. Contact moisture is required for successfull infection. In the southeast, infection also can occur during the rosette stage where mycelium grow on dead leaves still attached to the plant crown during wet conditions in the winter. The recommended management strategy is crop rotation with at least a four-year break between suceptible crops (beans, sunflowers, peas, lentils, alfalfa, clover, carrot, and potato). However, crop rotation can reduce risk only within a particular field and does not protect against air-borne inoculum from nearby fields. No resistant varieties are available. No fungicides are labelled for use.
Blackleg is a disease also favoured by moist conditions. The disease is caused by fungus Leptospheria maculans. The source of inoculum could be infected seed or crop residue in the field. In areas not infected previously with blackleg, seed is the source of infection; whereas in areas with known incidence of the disease, infected crop residue is the main source of the disease. Long-range infection of up to several miles is due to ascospores produced from the last year's crop residue. Infected plants produce pycnidia spores that cause secondary or short-range infection. The disease spreads over the plant and could infect the pods and seeds. The recommended management strategy for preventing seed-borne infection is to use healthy seed or treat seed with a systemic fungicide. Other practices are crop rotation with an at least three-year break before planting canola and an isolation distance of at least five miles from previous year's infected field. Cultural control also includes crop residue sanitation and control of weedy and volunteer hosts. Some cultivars exhibit some degree of resistance, especially Argentine types. No fungicides are labelled for foliar application. Fungicide seed treatments of benomyl suppress seed transmission of blackleg.
Alternaria black spot is caused by fungi Alternaria brassicae and Alternaria raphani. The disease is favoured by warm humid conditions. The source of inoculating spores is infected crop residue, infected seed, or cruciferous weeds. The spores germinate, penetrate the plant tissue, and cause lesions that produce more spores. Management includes crop rotation with at least three years without a host plant, control of cruciferous hosts of the disease, sanitation, and using healthy seed. Seed treatment only suppress infection. Early swathing may reduce shattering. Captan suppressess seed transmission of alternaria.
CRITICAL PEST CONTROL ISSUES
1. Remove plantback restriction on
Gaucho, this is of particular need to the southeast canola
2. Effective foliar insecticides to
control lepidopteran and aphid pests, such as Capture or
3. Effective foliar fungicides to control sclerotinia in the all production areas.
OUTLOOK FOR ANY NEW REGISTRATIONS
KEY COMMODITY CONTACTS
The US Canola Association is the key contact for pesticide issues for canola in the US. This umbrella organization is the focal point for all state commodity groups. It has a pesticide working group committee that solicts input from all state groups on key pesticide issues. US Canola Association, Suite 1106, 1000 Connnecticut Ave., NW, Washington, D.C. 20036 202/331-8113.
Mike Weiss, Dept. of Plant, Soil and Entomological Sciences, UI, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (208) 885-6274, (208) 885-7760 Fax, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Joe McCaffery, Dept. of Plant, Soil, and Entomological Sciences, UI, Moscow, ID 83844-2339 (208) 885-7548, 885-7760 Fax, email@example.com.
David Buntin, Dept. of Entomology, Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, (770) 412-4713, Fax 228-7287, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Art Lamey, Dept. of Plant Pathology, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58105 -(701) 231-7056, 231-7851 FAX,
Dan Phillips, Dept. of Plant Pathology, Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, (770) 412-4009, Fax 228-7287, email@example.com.
Richard Zollinger, Dept of Plant Sciences, NDSU, Fargo, ND 58105 (701) 231-8157, 231-8474, firstname.lastname@example.org.
David Bridges, Dept. of Crop & Soil Sciences, Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, (770) 228-7213, Fax 412-4734, email@example.com.
Paul Raymer, Dept. of Crop & Soil Sciences, Univ. of Georgia, Griffin, GA 30223-1797, (770) 228-7324, Fax 412-4734, firstname.lastname@example.org.
Canadian Canola Council
Blackshaw, R. E., F. O. Larney, C. W. Lindwall
and G. C. Kozub. 1994. Crop rotation and
Bragg, D. E. 1997. Flea beetle control, 1996. Artropod Management Tests 22: 206.
Davis, E. S., R. N. Stougaard and P. K. Fay. 1993. Herbicides for weedcontrol in canola: What are the options? Montana AgReserch, Fall 1993: 6 - 10.
Dewey, S. A., R. Sheley and T. D. Whitson. 1997. Weed Management Handbook 1997 - 98 . Montana - Utah - Wyoming. Cooperative Extension Service of Utah State University, Montana State University, and University of Wyoming.
Glogoza, P. A. 1997. Field Crop Insect Management Guide. NDSU Extension Service.
Hershman, D. E., D. M. Perkins and P. R. Bachi. 1993. Control of white mold of canola with foliar fungicides, 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48: 240.
Hudson, R. D. And J. W. Woodruff. 1995. Canola production guide. Univ. of Georgia Coop. Extension Serv. Publ. CSS-95-7, Athens, GA.
Lamey, A. 1996. Blackleg of canola. Biology and management. NDSU Extension Service.
Lamey, H. A. 1993. Control of sclerotinia stem rot in canola 1992. Fungicide and Nematicide Tests 48: 240.
McCaffrey., J. P. and B. L. Harmon. 1994. Seed treatments for flea beetle control in canola, 1993. Artropod Management Tests 19: 180.
North Central Weed Science Society. 1996. North Central Weed Science Society Proceedings 51: 42 - 45.
North Dakota Weed Control Reserch. 1989. Dept. of Plant Sciences, NDSU, Fargo, ND.
North Dakota Weed Control Reserch. 1995. Dept. of Plant Sciences, NDSU, Fargo, ND.
North Dakota Weed Control Reserch. 1996. Dept. of Plant Sciences, NDSU, Fargo, ND.
O'Donovan, J. T. 1991. Quackgrass (Elytrigia repens) interference in canola (Brassica campestris). Weed Science 39:397 - 401.
O'Sullivan, P. A., G. M. Weiss and V. C. Kossatz. 1985. Indices of competition for estimating rapeseed loss due to Canada thistle. Can. J. Plant. Sci. 65: 145 - 149.
Thomas, P. 1984. Canola grower's manual. Canola Council of Canada.
Weiss, M. J., P. McLeod, B. G. Schatz and B. Hanson. 1991. Potential for insecticidal management of flea beetle (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) on canola. J. Econ. Entomol. 84: 1597 - 1603.
Wrage, L. J. and D. Deneke. 1997. Weed Control in Oilseed Crops: 1997.
Sunflower, Safflower, Canola, and Flax. Cooperative Extension Service, South Dakota State University.
Zollinger, R. K. 1997. 1997 North Dakota Weed Control Guide. Circ. W-253. North Dakota State University Extension Service.
This site was last updated on November 15, 2002
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